Codi 504  Voice Disorders
Lecture 2:  Normal Processes of Voice Production

 Three Processes

 The Pulmonary System

 Upper airway
 Laryngeal structures
 Lower airway (trachea, bronchial tubes, bronchioles & alveolar sacs)
 Thoracic cavity - thoracic vertebrae, ribcage, connecting muscles
 Diaphragm muscle
 Respiratory Components of Voicing
 Airflow is essential for voice since:
  • Air is the medium for propagation of sounds
  •  Air forced through constrictions along the respiratory tract generate sounds
  •  Two aspects of air important for generation of voice
  •  Flow - volume of air passing through tube or duct per second
  •  Pressure- force distributed over a surface
  •  Generation of Pressures/Flows
      Two ways of measuring pressure  Lung pressure  Generation of Pressure & Flows  Muscles of Respiration  Function of Larynx during Respiration Lung Volume
    Total Lung volume
    Vital capacity - total amount of air that can beexpired after a maximum inhalation
    Residual volume - air that remains in lungs after maximum exhalation
     Variations in Respiration for Speech  Voice Disorders & Respiration  Process of Phonation  Mucosal Wave  Modification of Fundamental Frequency Vocal Registers Modification of Vocal Intensity Variations of Voice Quality  Resonance Components of Voice Structures of Resonance  Modifications of Resonance  Effects of Aging on the Respiratory Mechanism  Effects of Aging on Laryngeal Mechanism  Functional Effects of Aging on the Voice