Philosophy 151:
Exam 2 Study Guide


Study Guide for Exam #2 - Phil 151 - Spring 2001

NOTE: On the exam there may be some questions asked about topics not mentioned on the study guide and there may be topics on the study guide that do not appear on the exam. The best strategy for studying is to learn everything listed on the study guide, and study anything else that seems to you to be important. Also, I may announce additions or deletions to the study guide in class prior to the exam. This study guide should help you considerably. Be sure to bring a Scantron on the day of the exam. All exams are closed book/ closed note.

What does Hume have to say about popular philosophy as opposed to real philosophy? What sort of philosophy does he prefer and why?
What is Hume's overall approach to philosophical issues? How does it differ from Descartes' approach?
What are the perceptions of the mind, and how are they related to each other? What is Hume's criterion of meaningfulness? What are the three relations by which our ideas are related? What is Hume's Fork? Why does Hume claim that we do not have a priori knowledge of causation? What is Hume's point in his example of the secret powers of bread? What is Hume's Problem of Induction?
What is Hume's sceptical solution? Why does Hume think we form the beliefs we do? What is chance, according to Hume? How do we acquire our idea of probability?
What are the three things Hume believes are necessary to have a causal relation? Why does causation require necessary connexion? Why does Hume believe that we cannot get the idea of necessary connexion from a particular instance of cause and effect? from reasoning about sensory experiences? from internal impressions resulting in bodily motion? from a series of instances of cause and effect?  What is Hume's main point in his discussion of Occasionalism? What are Hume's two definitions of 'cause'? Why does he say that they are "foreign to the cause"? Does he believe that either of the two definitions are adequate? Why or why not?
What are Hume's arguments for compatibilism?
What is Hume's comparison of testimony argument? What are the other arguments he presents against belief in miracles, as discussed in class? What is the argument from design? What is Hume's reply to it? What is the problem of evil? What is Hume's reply to the argument from moral behavior?
Among Cartesian, extreme and moderate skepticism, which does Hume prefer and why?
What are the five fundamental theses of logical positivism? What does Ayer have in mind by verifiability? Know what he means by verifiability in principle, strong and weak verification, and direct and indirect verification. What does Ayer think are the implications of the principle of verification for skepticism? for Berklean Idealism?
What is the analytic/synthetic distinction? How is it supposed to be used by the empiricist? Why does Quine think the distinction cannot be drawn? How is Quine's attack on the distinction similar to Hume's account of causation?

additional terminology:
analytic   internal impressions  proof
synthetic   ideas of reflection  probability
a priori    libertarianism   coincidence miracle
a posteriori   determinism   violation miracle
free will   compatibilism   extreme skepticism
moderate skepticism  Cartesian skepticism