Cognitive Approaches to Literature

journals | publications


Journals that are not averse to considering articles of this sort:

College Literature
    33.1 (2006) special issue on Cognitive Shakespeare: Criticism and Theory in the Age of Neuroscience, edited by Patrick Colm Hogan and Lalita Pandit

Cognitive Linguistics
    11.2-3 (2000) special issue on Blending

Consciousness, Literature, and the Arts [e-journal]

European Journal of English Studies
    9.2 (2005) special issue on Cognitive Poetics, edited by Michael Toolan and Jean Jacques Weber

International Journal of English Studies (University of Murcia, Spain)

Journal of English Linguistics
    30.1 (2002) special issue on Poetics, edited by Richard Cureton

Journal of Pragmatics
    24.6 (1995) special issue on Pragmatics and Poetics, edited by Hiraga and Radwanska-Williams
    37.10 (2005) special issue on Blending Theory, edited by Coulson and Oakley

Language and Literature
    11.1 (2002) special issue on Metaphor Identification, edited by Gerard Steen
    14.3 (2005) special issue: Rhetoric and Beyond, edited by Craig Hamilton
    15.1 (2006) special issue on Blending, edited by Barbara Dancygier

Literary Semantics

Metaphor and Symbol
    16.3-4 (2001) special issue on Figurative Language


Philosophy and Literature (articles published here usually focus on evolutionary issues)
    25.2 (2001) special issue on Evolution and Literature, edited by Nancy Easterlin

Poetics Today
    20.3 (1998) special issue on Cognitive Metaphor and Literature, edited by Fludernik, Freeman, and Freeman
    23.1 (2002) special issue on Literature and the Cognitive Revolution, edited by Richardson and Steen
    24.2 (2003) special issue, "The Cognitive Turn? A Debate on Interdisciplinarity," edited by Meir Sternberg

PsyArt (online)

Rivista di Filologia Cognitiva (online)

    36.3 (2003) special issue on Cognitive Approaches to Literary Language

    30.1-2 (2001) special issue: On the Origin of Fictions: Interdisciplinary Perspectives, edited by: H. Porter Abbott


List of publications in this area:

Beall, Emily P. 2005. "'As reading as if': Harryette Mullen’s ‘cognitive similes’". Journal of Literary Semantics 34:2, 125-137.

Abstract: The poet Harryette Mullen takes the defamiliarization technique celebrated in cognitive poetics to an extreme – she manipulates not only the subject matter of her writing but the process the reader undertakes in attempting to read that defamiliarized language as well. I apply to Mullen’s poem “Wipe That Simile Off Your Aphasia” a number of ideas taken up by cognitive poetics (using Stockwell 2002 as my guide): reading versus interpretation, defamiliarization, prototypicality and actualization, sequential and summary scanning, and the mapping of conceptual metaphor. I then argue for several broader and unaccounted for challenges that Mullen’s work presents for cognitive poetic theory. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR]

Benzon, William. 2004. "Talking with Nature in 'This Lime-Tree Bower My Prison.' PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for Psychological Study of the Arts, URL:

Benzon, William. 2003. "'Kubla Khan' and the Embodied Mind." PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for Psychological Study of the Arts, URL:

Benzon, William. 2000. "First Person: Neuro-Cognitive Notes on the Self in Life and Fiction," PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for Psychological Study of the Arts, URL:

Benzon, William. 1998. "At the Edge of the Modern, or Why Is Prosper Shakespeare's Greatest Creation?," Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems 21:3, 259-79.

Benzon, William. 1993. "The Evolution of Narrative and the Self," Journal of Social and Evolutionary Systems 16:2, 129-55.

Benzon, William with David Hays. 1987. "Metaphor, Recognition, and Neural Process," American Journal of Semiotics 5, 59-79.

Benzon, William. 1977. "Sir Gawain and the Green Knight and the Semiotics of Ontology," Semiotica 21, 267-93.

Benzon, William. 1976. "Cognitive Networks and Literary Semantics," MLN 91, 952-82.

Berntsen, Dorthe. 1999. "How Is Modenist Poetry 'Embodied'?," Metaphor and Symbol 14(2), 101-22.

Bertuol, Roberto. 2001. "The Square Circle of Margaret Cavendish: the 17th-Century Conceptualization of Mind by Means of Mathematics," Language and Literature 10(1), 21-39.

Bizup, Joseph and Eugene Kintgen. 1993. "The Cognitive Paradigm in Literary Studies," College English 55(8), 841-57.

Brandt, Per Aage. 2004. "Metaphors and Meaning in Shakespeare's Sonnet 73." In G. Bradshaw, T. Bishop, and M. Turner, eds. The Shakespearean International Yearbook 4: Shakespeare Studies Today. Aldershot: Ashgate, 123-31.

Brandt, Per Aage. 2004. Spaces, Domains, and Meaning: Essays in Cognitive Semiotics. European Semiotics Series 4. Bern: Peter Lang.

Brandt, Line, and Brandt, Per Aage. 2005. "Making Sense of a Blend: A Cognitive-Semiotic Approach to Metaphor." Annual Review of Cognitive Linguistics 3: 216-49.

Brandt, Line, and Brandt, Per Aage. 2005. "Cognitive Poetics and Imagery."  European Journal of English Studies 9:2, 117-130.

Abstract: Imagery is manifestly a basic and omnipresent constituent of the mental life of human beings, a cognitive prerequisite of symbolisation and thought. The study of the poetic functions of imagery offers us a window into the cognitive semantics of the imaginative mind, but the literary contribution should not limit itself to illustrating the generalities of the mind; it should also address the issue of literature as such: what compelled humans to create art, poetry, and fiction, and in which sense can we be said to have a ‘literary mind’? (cf. Turner 1996) Imagery is a universally central dimension in poetic meaning production. Yet, cognitive poetics has made little effort so far to elucidate its semantic and semiotic mechanisms. Important as it is, imagery appears to constitute an issue exempt from deeper inquiry not only by the inherent difficulties and complexities of iconic structure but also by uncomfortable feelings about the entire field of mental representations in behaviorist psychology, analytic philosophy of mind, and anti-phenomenological thinking in general. In order to develop the study of poetic imagery in the framework of a cognitive semantics and semiotics, we suggest interrelating plain literary reading and cognitive research as directly as possible, and thus openly focusing on and exploring meaning production as it occurs in the poetic text, rather than using poetry only to illustrate certain notions in cognitive semantics. Here, we will limit ourselves to analysing two cases of reprocessed imagery, followed by some overall theoretical considerations on cognitive literary studies.

Burke, Michael. 2006. "Emotion in Stylistics" and "Cognitive Stylistics." In Encyclopaedia of Language and Linguistics (2nd Edition), ed. Keith Brown. Amsterdam: Elsevier, pp. 127-129 and 218-221.

Burke, Michael. 2005. "How Cognition Can Augment Stylistic Analysis." The European Journal of English Studies 9.2 (August): 185-96.

Burke, Michael. 2004. "Cognitive Stylistics in the Classroom: A Pedagogical Account." Style 39.1: 491-510.

Burke, Michael. 2003. "Literature as Parable." In Cognitive Poetics in Practice, eds. J. Gavins and G. Steen. London: Routledge, 115-128.

Crane, Mary Thomas. 2000. Shakespeare's Brain: Reading with Cognitive Theory. Princeton UP.

Crane, Mary Thomas and Alan Richardson. 1999. "Literary Studies and Cognitive Science: Toward a New Interdisciplinarity," Mosaic 32(2), 123-40.

Csábi, Szilvia. 2001. "The Concept of America in the Puritan Mind," Language and Literature 19.3, 195-209.

David Danaher. 2008 (Forthcoming).  Framing Václav Havel.  Slovo a smysl / Word and sense.

Danaher, David. 2006. 'Cognitive Poetics and Literariness: Metaphorical Analogy in Anna Karenina,' in Perspectives on Slavistics, eds. K. van Heuckelom and D. Danaher. Amsterdam: Pegasus.

Danaher, David. 2002. "The Semantics of 'Pity' and 'Zhalost'' in a Literary Context." Glossos 3.

Danaher, David. 2003. "Conceptual Metaphors for the Domains TRUTH and FALSEHOOD in Russian and Their Aesthetic Elaboration in Tolstoy’s 'The Death of Ivan Il’ich'," in American Contributions to the 13th International Congress of Slavists, Volume 2: Literature, eds. R. Maguire and A. Timberlake. Bloomington: Slavica, Slovenia. 61-75.

Danaher, David. 2003. "A Cognitive Approach to Metaphor in Prose: Truth and Falsehood in Leo Tolstoy's 'The Death of Ivan Il'ich'." Poetics Today 24:3, 439-69.

Danaher, David. 1998. "Peirce's Semiotic and Conceptual Metaphor Theory," Semiotica 119.1/2: 171-207.

Dancygier, Barbara. 2006. "What Can Blending Do for You?" Language and Literature 15.1: 5-15.

Dancygier, Barbara. 2005. "Blending and Narrative Viewpoint: Jonathan Raban's Travels through Mental Spaces." Language and Literature 14.2: 99-127.

Fauconnier, Gilles and Mark Turner. 1998. "Conceptual Integration Networks," Cognitive Science 22.2: 133-87.

Forceville, Charles. In preparation. "Visual Representatiosn of Anger in Comics: The Asterix album La Zizanie."

Forceville, Charles. Forthcoming, 2003. "Review of Z. Kövecses 'Metaphor: A Practical Introduction'," Journal of English Linguistics.

Forceville, Charles. Forthcoming, Spring 2003. "Bildliche unde multimodale Metaphern in Werbespots," Translated from English by Dagmar Schmauks, Zeitschrift für Semiotik [special issue on non-verbal metaphor, ed. R. Posner].

Forceville, Charles. 2002. "Further thoughts on delimiting pictorial metaphor," Theoria et Historia Scientiarum [special issue on metaphor, ed. T. Komendzinski] 6:1, 213-27.

Forceville, Charles. 2002. "The identification of target and source in pictorial metaphors," Journal of Pragmatics 34:1, 1-14.

Forceville, Charles. 2000. "Compasses, beauty queens and other PCs: pictorial metaphors in computer advertisements," Hermes: Journal of Linguistics 24, 31-55.

Forceville, Charles. 1999a. "The metaphor COLIN IS CHILD in Ian McEwan's, Harold Pinter's, and Paul Schrader's 'The Comfort of Strangers'," Metaphor and Symbol 14:3, 179-98.

Forceville, Charles. 1999b. "Educating the eye? Kress and Van Leeuwen's 'Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design (1996)'," Language and Literature 8:2, 163-78.

Forceville, Charles. 1999c. "Art or ad?: the influence of genre-attribution on the interpretation of images," SPIEL [Siegener Periodicum zur Internationalen Empirischen Literaturwissenschaft] 18:2, 279-300.

Forceville, Charles. 1996. Pictorial Metaphor in Advertising. London/New York: Routledge. [Synopsis]

Forceville, Charles. 1995. "(A)symmetry in metaphor: the importance of extended context," Poetics Today, 16:4, 677-708.

Freeman, Donald. 1999. "'The rack dislimns': Schema and Rhetorical Pattern in Antony and Cleopatra," Poetics Today 20(3), 443-60.

Freeman, Donald. 1995. "'Catch[ing] the Nearest Way': Macbeth and Cognitive Metaphor," Journal of Pragmatics 24, 689-708. [Synopsis]

Freeman, Donald. 1993."'According to My Bond': King Lear and Re-cognition," Language and Literature 2, 1-18. [Synopsis]

Freeman, Donald. 1991. "Songs of Experience: New Books on Metaphor," Poetics Today 12:1, 145-64.

Freeman, Margaret. 2006. "Blending: A Response." Language and Literature 15.1: 107-117.

Note: This is an excellent summary of current work in blending theory as it has been applied to literary texts. Freeman reviews the work in the speciall L&L issue on blending, noting developments and points of disagreement, then sets it all in context of other recent work such as Hiraga 2005 and Brandt 2004. She then breifly examines a poem by Wei Ying-wu (in translation) to demonstrate how the blending network can be effective for analysis. [C. Rice]

Freeman, Margaret. (forthcoming). "Minding: Feeling, form, and meaning in the creation of poetic iconicity." In Geert Brone and Jeroen Vandaele, eds., Cognitive Poetics. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Freeman, Margaret. (forthcoming). "The fall of the wall between literary studies and linguistics: Cognitive poetics." In Applications of Cognitive Linguistics: Foundations and Fields of Application. Gitte Kristiansen, Michel Achard, René Dirven, and Francisco Ruiz de Mendoza, eds.,  Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Freeman, Margaret. Forthcoming. "Cognitive Linguistic Approaches to Literary Studies: State of the Art in Cognitive Poetics," in Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, eds. D. Geeraerts and H. Cuyckens. Oxford UP.

Freeman, Margaret. 2006. "From metaphor to iconicity in a poetic text." In Réka Benczes and Szilvia Csábi, eds. The Metaphors of Sixty: Papers Presented on the Occasion of the 60th Birthday of Zoltán Kövecses, 127-135. Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University.

Freeman, Margaret. 2006. "Art, Science, and Ste. Emilie's Sunsets: A Háj-inspired Cognitive Approach to Translating an Emily Dickinson Poem into Japanese." With Masako Takeda. Festschrift for John Robert Ross. Style 40.1-2: 109-127.

Freeman, Margaret. 2005 "Is Iconicity Literal? Cognitive Poetics and the Literal Concept in Poetry." In The Literal and Nonliteral in Language and Thought, 65-83. Seana Coulson and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, eds. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang.

Freeman, Margaret. 2005. "The Nature of Poetic Texts. Review of Reuven Tsur, On the Shore of Nothingness: A Study in Cognitive Poetics." Poetics Today  26.3 535-547. 

Freeman, Margaret. 2005. "Poetry as Power: The Dynamics of Cognitive Poetics as a Scientific and Literary Paradigm." In Cognition and Literary Interpretation in Practice, 31-57. Harri Veivo, Bo Pettersson, and Merja Polvinen, eds. Helsinki: Helsinki University Press.

Freeman, Margaret. 2004. "Crossing the Boundaries of Time: Merleau-Ponty¹s Phenomenology and Cognitive Linguistic Theories." In Linguagem, Cultura e Cognição: Estudos de Linguística Cognitiva, 2: 643-655. 2 vols. Augusto Soares da Silva, Amadeu Torres, Miguel Gonçalves, eds. Coimbra: Almedina. 

Freeman, Margaret. 2004. Review of Adam Glaz. The Dynamics of Meaning: Explorations in the Conceptual Domain of EARTH. Lublin: Maria Curie-Sklodowska University Press, 2002. In Journal of English Linguistics 32.2: 147-150. 

Freeman, Margaret. 2004. "Grounded Spaces in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson." In Stylistics, 201-210. Paul Simpson, ed.. London and New York: Routledge.

Freeman, Margaret. 2005. "The Poem as Complex Blend: Conceptual Mappings of Metaphor in Sylvia Plath's 'The Applicant.'" Langauge and Literature 14.1: 25-44.

Freeman, Margaret. 2002. "Cognitive Mapping in Literary Analysis," Style 36:3, 466-83.

Freeman, Margaret. 2002. "Momentary Stays, Exploding Forces: A Cognitive Linguistic Approach to the Poetics of Emily Dickinson and Robert Frost," Journal of English Linguistics 30:1, 73-90.

Freeman, Margaret. 2002. "The Body in the Word: A Cognitive Approach to the Shape of a Poetic Text," in Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis, eds. E. Semino and J. Culpeper. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Freeman, Margaret. 2000. "Poetry and the Scope of Metaphor: Toward a Cognitive Theory of Literature," in Metaphor and Metonymy at the Crossroads, ed. A. Barcelona, 253-81. Amsterdam: Mouton.

Freeman, Margaret with M. Fludernik and D. Freeman. 1999. "Metaphor and Beyond: New Cognitive Developments," Poetics Today 20:3, 383-96.

Freeman, Margaret. 1998a. "Tropes and Figures: Troping as Poetic Strategy," in The Emily Dickinson Handbook, eds. G. Grabher et al. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press.

Freeman, Margaret. 1998b. "Metaphors of Mind: Analogical Mapping in Teaching Poetry," The Pedagogical Quarterly of Cognitive Linguistics 1:1. (URL:

Freeman, Margaret. 1998c. "Another Way to See: Emily Dickinson's Cognitive Power," Thoughts, Department of English, Chulalangonkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 19-27.

Freeman, Margaret. 1997. "Grounded Spaces: Deictic -Self Anaphors in the Poetry of Emily Dickinson," Language and Literature 6:1, 7-28. [Synopsis]

Freeman, Margaret. 1996. "'Silence–Denote–': The Intimacy of Dickinson's Spaces," in the Semantics of Silences, eds. G. Grabher and U. Jessner. Heidelberg: Universitätsverlag C. Winter.

Freeman, Margaret. 1995. "Metaphor Making Meaning: Dickinson's Conceptual Universe," Journal of Pragmatics 24:6, 643-666. [Synopsis]

Getz, Isaac and Todd Lubart. 2000. "An Emotional-Experiential Perspective on Creative Symbolic-Metaphorical Processes," Consciousness and Emotion 1:2, 89-118. (URL:

Gibbs, Raymond and Jody Bogdonovich. 1999. "Mental Imagery in Interpreting Poetic Metaphor," Metaphor and Symbol 14(1), 37-44.

Gibbs, Raymond and Lydia Kearney. 1994. "When Parting Is Such Sweet Sorrow: The Comprehension and Appreciation of Oxymora," Journal of Psycholinguistic Research 23, 75-89.

Gross, Sabine. 1997. "Cognitive Readings; or, The Disappearance of Literature in the Mind," Poetics Today 18:2, 271-97.

Hamilton, Craig. 2005. "A Cognitive Rhetoric of Poetry and Emily Dickinson." Language and Literature 14.3: 279-94.

Hart, Elizabeth. 1995. "Cognitive Linguistics: The Experiential Dynamics of Metaphor," Mosaic 28, 1-23.

Herman, Vimala. 1999. "Deictic Projection and Conceptual Blending in Epistolarity," Poetics Today 20(3): 523-41.

Hiraga, Masako. 2005. Metaphor and Iconicity: A Cognitive Approach to Analysing Texts. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.

Hiraga, Masako. 2001. "The Interplay of Metaphor and Iconicity: A Cognitive Approach to Poetic Texts, International Journal for Interdisciplinary Studies VI. [in a special issue on metaphor editted by Tomasz Komendzinski]

Hiraga, Masako. 2000a. The Interplay of Metaphor and Iconicity: A Cognitive Approach. PhD dissertation, University of London.

Hiraga, Masako. 2000b. "Iconicity as a Principle of Composition and Interpretation: A Case Study in Japanese Short Poems," in Phonosymbolism and Poetic Language, ed. Patrizia Violi, 147-69. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols.

Hiraga, Masako. 1999a. "'Blending' and an Interpretation of Haiku: A Cognitive Approach," Poetics Today 20:3, 461-81.

Hiraga, Masako. 1999b. "Rough Sea and the Milky Way: 'Blending' in a Haiku Text," in Computation for Metaphors, Analogy and Agents, ed. Chrystopher L. Nehaniv, 27-36. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

Hiraga, Masako. 1998. "Metaphor-Icon Link in Poetic Texts: A Cognitive Approach to Iconicity," Journal of the University of the Air 16, 95-123.

Hiraga, Masako and J. Radwanska-Williams. 1995. "Pragmatics and Poetics: Cognitive Metaphor and the Structure of the Poetic Text," The Journal of Pragmatics 24:6, 579-84.

Hogan, Patrick Holm. 1996. "Toward a Cognitive Science of Poetics: Anandavardhana, Abhinavagupta, and the Theory of Literature," College Literature 23(1), 164-79.

Holland, Norman. 1988. The Brain of Robert Frost: A Cognitive Approach to Literature. NY: Routledge.

Holm, Nanna. 2001. Metaphor and Translation: A Comparative Study of Two Translations into Danish of Federico García Lorca's "Poeta en Nueva York". Master's thesis, University of Aarhus.

Irandoust, Hengameh. 1999. "The Past Participle: Moving across Conceptual Spaces," Cognitive Linguistics 10(4), 279-302.

Jackson, Tony. 2000. "Questioning Interdisciplinarity: Cognitive Science, Evolutionary Psychology, and Literary Criticism," Poetics Today 21(2), 319-47.

Jahn, Manfred. 1997. "Frames, Preferences, and the Reading of Third-Person Narratives: Towards a Cognitive Narratology," Poetics Today 18(4), 441-68.

Jurado, Francisco García. 1994. "El vestido ascendente y el vestido descendente: Un aspecto significato de la mentalidad indumentaria en la obra de Horacio," 295-8. In Bimilenario de Horacio, eds. Roasio Cortés and José Fernández Corte. Salamanca: Universidad.

Jurado, Francisco García and Rosario López Gregoris. 1995. "Las metáforas de la vida cotidiana en el lenguaje plautino como procedimiento de caracterización de los pesonajes," Studi Italiani di filología clásica 13(2), 233-45.

Kardela, Anna and Henryk Kardela. Forthcoming. "The 'Unreliable Narrator': A Cognitive Linguistic Analysis of Truth in Kazuo Ishiguro's 'The Remains of the Day'." In Beyond Philology, ed. J. Burzynska. Gdansk.

Kardela, Anna and Henryk Kardela. 2000. "Subjectivity in Elizabeth Bowen's Short Stories: A Cognitive Linguistics Approach." In The Evidence of Literature: Interrogating Texts in English Studies, eds. Sven-Johan Spånberg, Henryk Kardela, and Gerald Porter. Lublin: Marie Curie-Sklodowska University.

Kövecses, Zoltán. 1994. "Tocqueville's Passionate 'Beast': A Linguistic Analysis of the Concept of American Democracy," Metaphor and Symbolic Activity 9(2), 113-33.

Lakoff, George and M. Turner. 1989. More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor. Chicago UP.

Matthew, David. 2003. Bodies of Blended Times: Time Compression Figures and the Imagination of the Future. PhD thesis, University of Florida.

McAlister, Sean. 2006 "'The Explosive Devices of Memory': Trauma and the Construction of Identity in Narrative. Language and Literature 15.1: 91-106.

Miall, David. 1989. "Beyond the Schema Given: Affective Comprehension of Literary Narratives," Cognition and Emotion 3(1), 55-78.

Miall, David. 2006. Literary Reading: Empirical and Theoretical Studies. New York and Bern: Peter Lang.
(abstract and table of contents at

Note: This book is largely a collection of articles Miall has published elsewhere but that are not readily available through his web site. The article updatings, along with the introduction and Chapter 6, the only wholly new chapter, provide an excellent summary of current research in empirical approaches to literature, especially research that focuses on the role of emotion in literary reading. As one would expect from Miall, the book is well organized and coherent, and his points are clearly and ably argued. Despite his desire to argue that empirical studies have "the potential to reorganize our understanding of literary studies root and branch" (21), he rarely overstates his case, and is admirably fair about the existing state of empirical research in literature. As a framework it has not achieved "paradigmatic status": it lacks a consensus on theoretical framework and on "what would count as exemplary experimental methods" (14). [C. Rice]

Miall, David and Don Kuiken. 2001. Reader Response: Empirical Research on Literary Reading. Research site. <>.

Oakley, Todd. 2005. "Negation and Blending: A Cognitive Rhetorical Approach." In Seana Coulson and Barbara Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk, eds. The Literal and Nonliteral in Language and Thought. Lodz Studies in Language 11. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Oakley, Todd. 1998. "Conceptual Blending, Narrative Discourse, and Rhetoric," Cognitive Linguistics 9(4), 320-60.

Peña Cervel, M. Sandra. 1997-98. "'Pride and Prejudice': A Cognitive Analysis," Cuadernos de Investigation Filologica 23-24, 233-55.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw. Forthcoming. "Metaphor in the Theory of the Sublime," Proceedings from the Conference Metaphor and Cognition, Torun, Poland, 1999.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw. 2002. Literackie identyfikacje i oddzwieki. Poetyka a empatia (Literary Identifications and Resonance. Poetics and Empathy). Lodz: WUL.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw. 2002. Figury niewyobrazalnego: Notatki z poetyki wznioslosci w literaturze polskiej (Figures of the Unimaginable: Notes in Poetics of the Sublime in Polish Literature). Cracow: Universitas.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw. 2000. Retoryka vznioslosci w dziele literackim (The Rhetoric of the Sublime in Literature). Cracow: Universitas.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw with Kenneth Holmqvist. 2002. "Appearance Markers." In Cognitive Linguistics Today, eds. B. Lewandowska-Tomaszczyk and K. Turewicz. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw with Kenneth Holmqvist. 2002. "'Many, Many'", Gradation and a Mimesis of Emotions." In Textual Secrets: The Message of the Medium (Proceedings of the 21st PALA Conference), eds. S. Csabi and J. Zerkowitz. Budapest: Eötvös Loránd University.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw with Kenneth Holmqvist. 2002. "A Short Bibliographical Guide to the Theory of the Sublime," Style 36:4.

Pluciennik, Jaroslaw with Kenneth Holmqvist. 2001. "The Hebraic and Indian Sublime from the Rhetoric Point of View," Journal of Indian Philosophy and Religion 6.

Rice, Claiborne. 2002. "Poetic Space: Critical Applications of Cognitive Linguistics to American Poetry." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Georgia.

Semino, Elena. 2006. "Blending and Characters' Mental Functioning in Virginia Woolf's 'Lappin and Lapinova.'" Language and Literature 15.1: 55-72.

Semino, Elena and J. Culpeper (eds). 2002. Cognitive Stylistics: Language and Cognition in Text Analysis. Amsterdam: Benjamins.

Shen, Yeshavahu. 1997. "Cognitive Constraints on Poetic Figures," Cognitive Linguistics 8(1), 33-71.

Shen, Yeshavahu and Michael Cohen. 1998. "How Come Silence Is Sweet But Sweetness Is Not Silent: A Cognitive Account of Directionality in Poetic Synaesthesia," Language and Literature 7(2), 123-40.

Sinding, Michael. 2007. Review of Joanna Gavins and Gerard Steen, eds. Cognitive Poetics in Practice. London: Routledge, 2003. Cognitive Linguistics 18:3: 465-78.

Sinding, Michael. 2005. "Genera Mixta: Conceptual Blending and Mixed Genres in Joyce’s Ulysses." New Literary History 36.4: 589-619.

Sinding, Michael. 2004. "Beyond Essence (or, Getting Over ‘There’): Cognitive and Dialectical Theories of Genre." Semiotica 149—1/4: 377-95.

Sinding, Michael. 2004. “Inwit of Inwit.” Review article, David Lodge, Consciousness and the Novel and Thinks . . . . Style 38.1: 93-113.

Sinding, Michael. 2002. "After Definitions: Genre, Categories and Cognitive Science." Genre: Forms of Discourse and Culture 35.2: 181-220.

Sinding, Michael. 2002. "Assembling Spaces: the Conceptual Structure of Allegory." Style 36.3 (Special Issue on Cognitive Approaches to Figurative Language): 503-23.

Sinding, Michael. 2000. “Metaphor in the Raw.” Review article, George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and Its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic Books, 1999. Postmodern Culture 11.1.

Steen, Francis. 1998. "'The Time of Unremarkable Being': Wordsworth's Autobiography of the Imagination," A/B Autobiography Studies 13:1, 7-38. [in a special issue on autobiography and neuroscience editted by Thomas R. Smith]

Steen, Francis. 2002. "Cognitive Play: The Work of Fiction in British Print Culture, 1656-1752." Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Steen, Francis F. 2005. “What Kind of Truth is Beauty?” Mark Turner (ed.). The Artful Mind. Oxford University Press.

Steen, Gerard. 2001. "A Rhetoric of Metaphor: Conceptual and Linguistic Metaphor and the Psychology of Literature." In The Psychology and Sociology of Literature: In Honor of Elrud Ibsch, eds. Dick Schram and Gerard Steen. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Steen, Gerard. 1994. Understanding Metaphor in Literature. NY: Longman.

Stockwell, Peter. 2002. Cognitive Poetics: An Introduction. London: Routledge.

Stockwell, Peter. 2005. "Texture and Identification." EJES 9.2: 143-154.

Abstract: It is clear that there is an increasing divergence between the concerns and discourse of professional readers of literature and the experience engaged in by natural readers. In particular, natural readers foreground emotional and motivational aspects of literary works, areas which are neglected or poorly handled in the academy. This paper explores the emotionally affecting dimension of how readers identify with literary works. Drawing on cognitive poetic developments within stylistics including text-world theory, a method is proposed that equates empathetic identification with spatial conceptualisation and distance. A short analysis of a very popular poem illustrates how the method can gauge differences between artificial and natural reading.

Strack, Daniel C. 2006. "When the PATH OF LIFE crosses the RIVER OF TIME: Multivalent Bridge Metaphor in Literary Contexts." University of Kitakyushu Faculty of Humanities Journal, 72.

Strack, Daniel C. 2006. "Hemingway's Iceberg Sinks: A Reconsideration of Across the River and Into the Trees." University of Kitakyushu Faculty of Humanities Journal, 71, 1-28.

Strack, Daniel C. 2000. "Deliver us from Nada: Hemingway's Hidden Agenda in For Whom the Bell Tolls." University of Kitakyushu Faculty of Humanities Journal, 59. 97-127.

Sun, Douglas. 1994. "Thurber's Fables for Our Time: A Case Study in Satirical Use of the Great Chain Metaphor," Studies in American Humor 3(1), 51-61.

Sweetser, Eve. 2006. "Whose Rhyme is Whose Reason? Sound and Sense in Cyrano de Bergerac." Language and Literature 15.1: 29-54.

Abstract: This article proposes a new interpretation of the relationship between poetic form and literary interpretation in Rostand's Cyrano de Bergerac, focusing on the special affordances of rhyme and meter in dramatic verse and on Rostand's virtuosic exploitation of poetic blending possibilities in Cyrano. I claim that poetic blends play a thematically essential role in this work, at a level far beyond their thematic contribution to most verse drama. Such a reading of Cyrano may thus help to expose general asp[ects of poetic blending which may be less visably present in other texts. It also has consequences for our understanding of verbal humor and irony. In the final section of the article, I propose an extension of my analysis of metric and rhyming blends to the beginnings of a cognitive poetic treatment of intertextuality as blending.

Sweetser, Eve. 2001. "'The suburbs of your good pleasure': Co-orientation of Metaphorical Mappings in Literary and Everyday Language," Zeitschrift für Semiotik.

Tabakowska, Elzbieta. 1993. Cognitive Linguistics and Poetics of Translation. Tübingen: Gunter Narr Verlag.

Thomas, Franci-Noël and Mark Turner. 1994. Clear and Simple as the Truth: Writing Classic Prose. Princeton UP.

Tobin, Vera. 2006. "Ways of Reading Sherlock Holmes: the Entrenchment of Discourse Blends." Language and Literature 15.1: 73-90.

Tsur, Reuven. 2006. ‘Kubla Khan’ – Poetic Structure, Hypnotic Quality and Cognitive Style: A study in mental, vocal and critical performance. Human Cognitive Processing 16. Amsterdam: John Benjamins. (flyer)

Tsur, Reuven. 2003. On the Shore of Nothingness: Space, Rhythm, and Semantic Structure in Religious Poetry and Its Mystic-Secular Counterpart. A Study in Cognitive Poetics. Imprint Academic. (

Tsur, Reuven. 2000. Between Cognitive and Historical Poetics [in Hebrew]. Tel Aviv: Hakibuts Hameukhad Publishing House.

Tsur, Reuven. 2000. "Picture Poetry, Mannerism, and Sign Relationships," Poetics Today 24, 751-81. (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 2000. "Lakoff's Roads Not Taken," Pragmatics and Cognition 7, 339-59.

Tsur, Reuven. 2000. "Metaphor and Figure-Ground Relationship: Comparisons from Poetry, Music, and the Visual Arts," PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts, (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 2000. "The Performance of Enjambments, Perceived Effects, and Experimental Manipulations," PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts, (URL: (

Tsur, Reuven. 12 April 1999. "An Interview with Reuven Tsur," ed. Beth Bradburn, Literature, Cognition, and the Brain Website (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 1998. Poetic Rhythm: Structure and Performance: An Empirical Study in Cognitive Poetics. Bern: Peter Lang. The whole text of the book, with sound files, is available at Reuven's web site.

Tsur, Reuven. 1998. "Light, Fire, Prison: A Cognitive Analysis of Religious Imagery in Poetry," PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts, (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 1997. "Sound Affects of Poetry: Critical Impressionism, Reductionism, and Cognitive Poetics," Pragmatics and Cognition 5, 283-304.

Tsur, Reuven. 1997. "Poetic Rhythm: Performance Patterns and Their Acoustic Correlates," Versification: An Electronic Journal Devoted to Poetic Prosody 1:1, (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 1997. "To Be or Not to Be – That Is the Rhythm: A Cognitive-Empirical Study of the Poetry in the Theatre," Assaph: Studies in Theatre 13, 95-122.

Tsur, Reuven. 1997. "Picture Poems: Some Cognitive and Aesthetic Principles," PSYART: A Hyperlink Journal for the Psychological Study of the Arts, (URL:

Tsur, Reuven. 1996. "Rhyme and Cognitive Poetics," Poetics Today 17, 55-87.

Tsur, Reuven. 1994. "Droodles and Cognitive Poetics: Contribution to an Aesthetics of Disorientation," Humor 7, 55-70.

Tsur, Reuven. 1992. Toward a Theory of Cognitive Poetics. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science Publishers. (For more information and to purchase, see

Tsur, Reuven. 1992. What Makes Sound Patterns Expressive: The Poetic Mode of Speech-Perception. Duke UP.

Tsur, Reuven. 1989. "Horror Jokes, Black Humor and Cognitive Poetics," Humor 2-3, 243-55.

Tsur, Reuven. 1988. Hebrew Hypnotic Poetry: Preliminary Observations [in Hebrew]. Tel Aviv: Katz Research Institute for Hebrew Literature.

Tsur, Reuven. 1988. "'Oceanic' Dedifferentiation and Poetic Metaphor," Journal of Pragmatics 12, 711-24.

Tsur, Reuven. 1987. The Road to "Kubla Khan": A Cognitive Approach. Jerusalem: Israel Science Publishers.

Tsur, Reuven. 1987. How Do the Sound Patterns Know They Are Expressive: The Poetic Mode of Speech-Perception. Jerusalem: Israel Science Publishers.

Tsur, Reuven. 1987. On Metaphoring. Jerusalem: Israel Science Publishers.

Tsur, Reuven. 1983. Meaning and Emotion in Poetry [in Hebrew]. Tel Aviv: Katz Research Institute for Hebrew Literature.

Tsur, Reuven. 1983. "Linguistic Intuition as a Constraint upon Interpretation: An Exercise in Cognitive Poetics [in Hebrew]," in Jerusalem Studies in Hebrew Literature 2, ed. D. Miron, 21-53.

Tsur, Reuven. 1979. "Levels of Information Processing in Reading Poetry," Critical Inquiry 5, 751-9.

Tsur, Reuven. 1978. "Emotions, Emotional Qualities, and Poetry," Psychocultural Review 2, 165-80.

Tsur, Reuven. 1977. A Perception-Oriented Theory of Metre. Tel Aviv: Porter Institute for Poetics and Semiotics.

Tsur, Reuven and Y. Bentov. 1996. "The Rhythmic and Strophic Organization of Mediaeval Hebrew Poetry (A Cognitive Approach)," Empirical Studies in the Arts 14, 183-206.

Tsur, Reuven, J. Glicksohn and C. Goodblatt. 1991. "Gestalt Qualities in Poetry and the Reader's Absorption Style," Journal of Pragmatics 16:4, 193-206.

Turner, Mark. 2006. "Compression and Representation." Language and Literature 15.1: 17-27.

Abstract: Mental spaces are often connected by vital conceptual relations. When mental spaces serve as inputs to a blended mental space, the vital conceptual relations between them can be 'compressed' to blended structure inside the blended mental space. In other words, 'outer-space' relations become 'inner-space' relations. This article discusses compression of the outer-space relation of representation under mental blending.

Turner, Mark. 1996. The Literary Mind. Oxford UP.

Turner, Mark. 1991. Reading Minds: The Study of English in the Age of Cognitive Science. Princeton UP.

Watson, G. and Zyngier, S., eds. 2007. Literature and Stylistics for Language Learners. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan. (ISBN: 1403987998)

Note: Joanna Gavins reports that this book is "a collection of articles on pedgogical approaches to language and literature and includes a couple of cognitive-poetic accounts, including one by Peter Stockwell on teaching Ozymandias."

Weber, Jean Jacques. 2005. "Cognitive Poetics and Literary Criticism: Types of Resolution in the Condition-of-England Novel." European Journal of English Studies 9.2: 131-41.

Weber, Jean Jacques. 2005. "From 'Bad' to 'Worse': Pragmatic Scales and the (De)construction of Cultural Models." Language and Literature 14.1: 45-63.

Weber, Jean Jacques. 2004. "A New Paradigm for Literary Studies, or: The Teething Troubles of Cognitive Poetics." Style 38:4, 515-523.

Note: This is a review of Stockwell's Cognitive Poetics, Gavins and Steen's Cognitive Poetics in Practice, and Semino and Culpepper's Cognitive Stylistics. [C. Rice]

Werth, Paul. 1994. "Extended Metaphor: A Text-World Account," Language and Literature 3(2), 79-103.

Wójcik-Leese, Elzbieta. 2000. "Salient Ordering of Free Verse and Its Translation," Language and Literature 9(2), 170-81.

Wójcik-Leese, Elzbieta. 2000. "'FRAIL CRAFT': Experimental Poetry, Conceptual Blending, and Translation," 39-50. In Przekladajac nieprzekladalne [Translating the Untranslatable], eds. W. Kubinski, O. Kubinska, and T. Wolanski. Gdansk UP.

Wye, Margaret. 1998. Jane Austen's Emma: Embodied Metaphor as a Cognitive Construct. Lewiston: The Edwin Mellen Press.

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